An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organized presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions usually occur in a cultural or educational setting such as a museum, art gallery, park, library, exhibition hall, or world’s exhibitions. Exhibitions can include many things such as art in both major museums and smaller galleries, interpretive exhibitions, natural history museums and history museums, as well as varieties such as more commercially focused exhibitions and trade fairs. In British English the word “exhibition” is used for a collection of items placed on the display, and the event as a whole, which in American English is usually “exhibit”. In both varieties of English each object being displayed in an exhibition is an “exhibit”. In common use, “exhibitions” are considered temporary and usually scheduled to open and close at specific dates. While many exhibitions are shown in just one venue, some exhibitions are shown in multiple locations and are called traveling exhibitions, and some are online exhibitions. Exhibitions featuring particularly fragile or valuable objects, or live animals, may be shown only during a formal presentation under the close supervision of attendants or educators. Temporary exhibits, which are transported from institution to institution, are traveling exhibits. Though exhibitions are common events, the concept of a fair is quite wide and encompasses many variables. Exhibitions range from an extraordinarily large event such as a World’s Fair Exposition to a small one-artist solo shows or a display of just one item. Curators are sometimes involved as people who select items in a show. Writers and editors are often needed to write text, labels and accompanying printed materials such as catalogs and books. Architects, exhibition designers, graphic designers and other designers may be required to shape the exhibition space and give form to editorial content. Organizing and holding exhibitions also requires efficient event planning, management, and logistics.
The exhibition came fully into its own in the 19th century, but various temporary exhibitions had been held before that, especially the regular displays of mostly new art in major cities. The Paris Salon of the Académie des Beaux-Arts was the most famous of these, beginning in 1667, and open to the public from 1737. By the mid-18th century this and its equivalents in other countries had become crucial for developing and maintaining the reputation of contemporary artists. In London the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition has been held annually since 1769, and the British Institution ran temporary exhibitions from 1805 to 1867, typically twice a year, with one of new British painting and one of loans of old masters from the Royal Collection and the aristocratic collections of English country houses.
By the mid-19th century many of the new national museums of Europe were in place, and holding exhibtions of their own collections, or loaned collections, or a mixture of objects from both sourcers, which remains a typical mix today. The “Chronology of Temporary Exhibitions at the British Museum” goes back to 1838.
The tradition of the Universal exposition “world Expo” or “World’s Fair” began with the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London; these are only held every few years, most recently in 2015 in Milan and 2017 in Astana, Kazakhstan. The Eiffel Tower in Paris was built for the Exposition Universelle (1889) and served as an entrance arch.
Modern exhibitions may be concerned with preservation, education and demonstration, early exhibitions were designed to attract public interest and curiosity. Before the widespread adoption of photography, the exhibition of a single object could attract large crowds. Visitors might even be overcome with Stendhal syndrome, feeling dizzy or overwhelmed by the intense sensory experience of an exhibit. Today, there is still tension between the design of exhibits for educational purposes or for the purpose of attracting and entertaining an audience, as a tourist attraction.
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